Labour migration in India increasing

Inter-state labour mobility averaged 5-6.5 million people between 2001 and 2011, yielding an inter-state migrant population of about 60 million

GN Bureau | January 31, 2017


#inter-state labour mobility   #Arun Jaitley   #Economic Survey   #Labour migration  


New estimates of labour migration in India have revealed that inter-state labour mobility is significantly higher than previous estimates, said the Economic Survey 2016-17 presented by finance minister Arun Jaitley in parliament.

The study based on the analyses of new data sources and new methodologies also shows that the migration is accelerating and was particularly pronounced for females. The data sources used for the study are the 2011 Census and railway passenger traffic flows of the ministry of railways, and new methodologies including the Cohort-based Migration Metric (CMM).

The CMM shows that inter-state labour mobility averaged 5-6.5 million people between 2001 and 2011, yielding an inter-state migrant population of about 60 million and an inter-district migration as high as 80 million. The first-ever estimates of internal work-related migration using railways data for the period 2011-2016 indicate an annual average flow of close to 9 million migrant people between the states. Both these estimates are significantly greater than the annual average flow of about 4 million suggested by successive Censuses and higher than previously estimated by any study.

Read: Needed policy for poor urban migrants

The second finding from this new study is that migration for work and education is accelerating. In the period 2001-2011 the rate of growth of labour migrants nearly doubled relative to the previous decade, rising to 4.5 percent per annum. Interestingly, the acceleration of migration was particularly pronounced for females and increased at nearly twice the rate of male migration in the 2000s. There is also a doubling of the stock of inter-state out migrants to nearly 12 million in the 20-29 year old cohort alone. One plausible hypothesis for this acceleration in migration is that the rewards (in the form of prospective income and employment opportunities) have become greater than the costs and risks that migration entails. Higher growth and a multitude of economic opportunities could therefore have been the catalyst for such an acceleration of migration.

Read: MNREGA money down the drain

Third, and a potentially exciting finding, for which there is tentative but no conclusive evidence, is that while political borders impede the flow of people, language does not seem to be a demonstrable barrier to the flow of people. For example, a gravity model indicates that political borders depress the flows of people, reflected in the fact that migrant people flows within states are 4 times than migrant people flows across states. However, not sharing Hindi as a common language appears not to create comparable frictions to the movement of goods and people across states.

Fourth, the patterns of flows of migrants found in this study are broadly consistent with what is expected – less affluent states see more migration while the most affluent states are the largest recipients of migrants. Fifth, the costs of moving for migrants are about twice as much as they are for goods – another confirmation of popular conception.

Policy actions to sustain and maximise the benefits of migration include: ensuring portability of food security benefits, providing healthcare and a basic social security framework for migrants – potentially through an inter-state self-registration process. While there do currently exist multiple schemes that have to do with migrant welfare, they are implemented at the state level, and hence require greater inter-state coordination.
 

Comments

 

Other News

PNB fraud: Why we need banking reforms

Billionaire jeweller Nirav Modi, whose properties are being searched after Punjab National Bank reported a massive fraud of Rs 11,000 crore, is a good reason why banking reforms

Gender based atrocities happens across the world: Dr Rashmi M Oza

“Gender based discrimination is worldwide and not alone in India. Offences against women are much more severe in cases of international trafficking, forced prostitution and pornography, women including migrant and refugee women face double barriers on virtue of their gender,"said Dr Rashmi M Oza

Rashtrapati Bhawan hosts LPG Panchayat for beneficiaries

A group of 104 women beneficiaries of the Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana participated and shared their experiences at LPG Panchayat organised at the Rashtrapati Bhawan on February 13. The women delegation, falling under the BPL category, came across 27 states to narrate their success stories

Bengaluru metro gets coach unit from BEML

BEML Ltd, a defence PSU, has delivered the first intermediate metro coach (car) unit to Bengaluru Metro Rail Corporation Limited (BMRCL). The intermediate car would be integrated with the existing three-car train sets to double the present passenger carrying capacity of the Bengaluru’

BHEL gets order for emission control equipment from NTPC

BHEL has got Rs 560 crore order for the supply and installation of flue gas desulphurisation (FGD) system from NTPC for 2x490 MW National Capital Power Station (NCPS). The Indian power sector has seen an uptick in the ordering of emission control equipment due to the revised and more stringe

UBI: The devil is in the detail

Instituting Universal Basic Income (UBI) requires public support spanning demographic lines, executive backing, and strong macroeconomic fundamentals. Weaken any leg of this tripod, and the redistributive preferences of any government may shift in favour of traditional welfare support and focusing on econo

Current Issue

Current Issue

Video

CM Nitish’s convoy attacked in Buxar

Opinion

Facebook    Twitter    Google Plus    Linkedin    Subscribe Newsletter

Twitter