A CAG report reveals gaps in public debt management
S Krishnan | September 7, 2016
Many people may not know that there is a National Debt Clock of India, which gives second-by-second details of the overall position of India’s debt. At 11 am on August 19, when I started writing this article, the clock’s readings were as follows:
National debt of India: a mind-boggling figure of Rs 57,021,582,965,509
Interest per year: Yet another mind-boggling figure of Rs 3,631,886,752,695
Interest per second: Rs 115,166
Debt per citizen: Rs 44,032
Debt as percentage of GDP: 41.66%
GDP: Rs 136, 889,344,275,900
Now, the comptroller and auditor general (CAG) of India has come out with its report on this subject (Report No. 16 of 2016, Union Ministry of Finance, Public Debt Management, Performance Audit, covering the period from 2009-10 to 2014-15, submitted to parliament on July 26). It reveals some very interesting facts. This article is intended to highlight these facts and bring them to public notice.
The famous aphorism, “Neither a borrower nor a lender be”, from Shakespeare’s play ‘Hamlet’ may no doubt be a wise saying to be followed by individuals, but for a developing country like India, to provide various social benefits to the people, large financial resources are needed, resulting in excess of expenditure over non-debt receipts, which is termed as fiscal deficit and is sought to be plugged by borrowing, which adds to the country’s outstanding debt. The shortfall is met either by internal or external borrowing, contracted on the security of the Consolidated Fund of India, or by the use of surplus fund in the Public Account, in the budget, internal debt and external debt; these are together referred to as ‘public debt’.
The public debt portfolio is often the largest financial portfolio in the country and can have a far-reaching impact on financial stability. Public debt, while giving an opportunity to the country to fuel economic growth, also places onus on the country for being responsible in proper utilisation of the borrowed funds. Borrowing for this purpose, when not justified by a national need, could be inconsistent with sustainable economic policy. There is also the implied consequence of burdening future generations with such mounting debts.
The total outstanding public debt of India as on March 31, 2015 was Rs 51,04,675 crore of which Rs 47,38,291 crore (92.82 percent) was internal debt and Rs 3,66,384 crore (7.18 percent) was external debt. Statistically speaking, while the total debt liability (internal + external + other liabilities) as of 2011-12 was Rs 41,51,284 crore, at current rates, by 2014-15 it was Rs 57,75,685 crore, at current rates, and constituted an average of around 46 percent of the GDP of the country, over the period from 2011-12 to 2014-15.
An analysis of the servicing of the debts (interest payment + repayment of principal) showed that in respect of short-term internal debt, more than 97 percent of the total short-term debt receipts in each of the six years from 2009-10 to 2014-15 was utilised for servicing of the debts. In the case of long-term internal debt, the corresponding percentage ranged from 58 percent to 77 percent, while in case of external debt, it ranged from 42 percent to 87 percent during the same period. In particular during 2014-15, 77 percent of the long-term internal borrowings and 73 percent of the external borrowing were utilised for debt servicing, implying that a larger percentage of debt was being used for debt servicing, which in turn meant lower percentage of debt was available for meeting developmental expenditure, to promote growth, which is one of the principal justifications for resorting to borrowing.
In the last few years, several countries across the world have faced public debt crisis. Moreover, the frequency and severity of debt crises across the world and the consequent adverse impact on managing of public finances, reinforces the need for promoting responsible lending and borrowing practices.
More importantly, when external loans are taken there should be a proper planning for their drawl and timely utilisation. If this is not done the government of India becomes liable to pay what is known as commitment charges on undrawn balance of external loan, on principal amounts rescheduled for drawl on later dates. During the period from 2009-10 to 2014-15, commitment charges to the extent of Rs 602.66 crore were paid on this account. The year-wise total undrawn balance (loans) from various sources and payment of commitment charges are shown in the accompanying table.
The final conclusions of the CAG report show that:
The executive often has a tendency to belittle the findings of audit or not to take them seriously. In fact, instances are not lacking where valid criticism by audit of the acts of omission and commission by the executive, which have resulted in huge losses to the exchequer, are cited as alibis for promoting policy paralysis. Other constitutional bodies, such as the CVC, the high courts and the supreme court and the information commissions, have been clubbed together as ‘5Cs’ as the reason for inhibiting the decision-making process by senior government officials!
There being no machinery other than parliament and the public accounts committee to go into the CAG reports for taking remedial action, mostly the findings remain on paper and in due course forgotten. This is most unfortunate. There is, therefore, need for building public opinion and bring on board, other opinion makers and the media to bring widespread awareness of these shortcomings and build pressure on the government to take prompt remedial action. It is hoped that the conclusions and recommendations of the CAG on public debt management receives the attention of the ministry of finance for taking prompt remedial action.
Krishnan, IAAS (retired), served as additional secretary, ministry of finance.
(The article appears in the September 1-15, 2016 issue of Governance Now)
The Moral Contagion By Julia Hauser and Sarnath Banerjee HarperCollins, 140 pages, Rs 699 The world has lar
Addressing the Viksit Bharat Viksit Uttar Pradesh program in Lucknow on Monday, prime minister Narendra Modi launched 14,000 projects across the state, worth more than Rs 10 lakh crore at the fourth groundbreaking ceremony of UP Global Investors Summit held in February 2023. The projects relate to sectors
During the four days from Feb 16, more than a thousand birdwatchers throughout India are coming together with the goal of documenting as many birds as possible across the country’s diverse locations. Over one lakh birdwatchers globally participate in the annual Great Backyard Bird Coun
The Central Consumer Protection Authority has sought public comments on the ‘Draft Guidelines for Prevention of Misleading Advertisement in Coaching Sector’. The draft guidelines are placed on the website of the Department of Consumer Affairs and are accessible through the link:
In a landmark judgment, the Supreme Court of India has held the anonymous, unregulated and unlimited funding through electoral bonds and companies as unconstitutional. The five-judge Constitution Bench of the Supreme Court comprising chief justice DY Chandrachud and justices Sanjiv Khanna, B
The world is at the cusp of a revolution based on Industry 4.0 and green technologies, including AI, big data, IoT, EVs, solar power, etc., which offer developing countries the opportunity to leapfrog into economic prosperity. However, India’s gross expenditure on R&D (GERD) still stands at a mea